Ortho Biotech. Product information form for American Hospital Formulary Service on Eprex epoetin alfa. Raritan, NJ; 1990 Jun. Rifaximin for IBS is also protected by US Patent Nos. Genitourinary: Renal failure, interstitial nephritis, BUN and serum creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, crystalluria and nephrotoxicity in association with cyclosporine. Prolonged administration of any potent vasopressor may result in plasma volume depletion which should be continuously corrected by appropriate fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy. phenytoin generic dosing
Segal GM, Eschbach JW, Egrie JC et al. The anemia of end-stage renal disease: hematopoietic progenitor cell response. Kidney Int. Prata MM, Sousa FT, Barbas JM et al. Blood lipids in haemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. Do not shake Epogen. Egrie JC, Cotes PM, Lane J et al. Development of radioimmunoassays for human erythropoietin using recombinant erythropoietin as tracer and immunogen. J Immunol Methods. Korbet SM. Comparison of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the management of anemia related to chronic renal disease. Semin Nephrol.
How should I take Mircera? Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Macdougall IC, Hutton RD, Cavill I et al. Poor response to treatment of renal anaemia with erythropoietin corrected by iron given intravenously. BMJ. Lerche D, Schmidt R, Zoellner K et al. Rheology in whole blood and in red blood cells under recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Contrib Nephrol. Treatment with Epoetin Alfa Hexal must be started under the supervision of a doctor who has experience in the management of patients with the conditions that the medicine is used for. The iron levels of all patients should be checked before treatment to make sure that they are not too low, and iron supplements should be used throughout treatment.
What does rectal bleeding blood in stool mean? Epogen may cause serious side effects. Graber SE, Krantz SB. Erythropoietin and the control of red cell production. Ann Rev Med.
Piazza V, Galli F, Villa G et al. Erythropoietin, aluminium, and anaemia in patients on haemodialysis. Lancet. Patient Instructions for Use”. Zaoui P, Bayle F, Maurizi J et al. Early thrombosis in kidney grafted into patient treated with erythropoietin. Lancet. Riedel E, Hampl H, Nundel M et al. Correction of amino acid AA metabolism by recombinant human erythropoietin rHuEPO in hemodialized patients HD. Abstracts on recombinant erythropoietin from the American Society of Nephrology 21st annual meeting, San Antonio, TX, December 11-14, 1988. Bray GL, Reaman GH. Partial deficiency of erythropoietin EPO resulting from cisplatin CPDD mediated nephrotoxicity. Blood. Patients with CKD: Individualize dosing. DeMarchi S, Cecchin E, Villalta D et al. Relief of pruritus and decreases in plasma histamine concentrations during erythropoietin therapy in patients with uremia. N Engl J Med. Shannon KM. Anemia of prematurity: progress and prospects. In rare instances, a skin rash may be followed by a more severe reaction, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hepatic necrosis and serious blood disorders see . Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions. Do not shake Mircera. Many drugs can interact with cinacalcet. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Tell your doctor about all medicines you use, and those you start or stop using during your treatment with Sensipar. Give a list of all your medicines to any healthcare provider who treats you.
Stravitz RT, Chung H, Sterling RK et al. Antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia due to epoetin alfa during antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. Schollmeyer P, Lubrich-Birkner I, Steinhauer HB. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on anemia and dialysis: efficiency in patients undergoing CAPD. Contrib Nephrol. White, and 4% were Black. Ninety-one percent of patients in the trial were taking lactulose concomitantly. Mircera with the assay. Fischer C, Scigalla P, Park W et al. Influence of rhEPO therapy on the protein metabolism of hemodialysis patients with terminal renal insufficiency. Contrib Nephrol. However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was on average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects. Discontinue permanently in any patient with PRCA. 1 400 See Contraindications. Take Sensipar exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Dessypris EN, Krantz SB. Erythropoietin regulation of erythropoiesis and clinical use. Adv Pharmacol. Ganser A, Volkers B, Scigalla P et al. Effect of human recombinant erythropoietin on human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. Klin Wochenschr. Mircera in healthy volunteers. Iki S, Yagisawa M, Ohbayashi Y et al. Adverse effect of erythropoietin in myeloproliferative disorders. Lancet. flonase
Who should not take Epogen? Summerfield GP, Bellingham AJ. The effects of therapeutic dialysis and renal transplantation on uraemic serum inhibitors of erythropoiesis in vitro. Br J Haematol. RBCs and cause you to have severe anemia. Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are also receiving indomethacin. Kurzrock R, Talpaz M, Estey E et al. Erythropoietin treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and anemia. Leukemia. Keintsch-Engel R, Hallermayer K, Dessauer A. Methods for measuring erythropoietin and erythropoietin antibodies using ELISA technique. Contrib Nephrol. The safety of Xifaxan for the treatment of IBS-D was evaluated in 3 placebo-controlled studies in which 952 patients were randomized to Xifaxan 550 mg three times a day for 14 days. Across the 3 studies, 96% of patients received at least 14 days of treatment with Xifaxan. In Trials 1 and 2, 624 patients received only one 14-day treatment. Trial 3 evaluated the safety of Xifaxan in 328 patients who received 1 open-label treatment and 2 double-blind repeat treatments of 14 days each over a period of up to 46 weeks. First-line therapy for appropriately selected patients with anemia of CKD. bicalutamide online no script required bicalutamide
Epogen passes into breast milk. Nissenson AR. Recombinant human erythropoietin: impact on brain and cognitive function, exercise tolerance, sexual potency, and quality of life. Semin Nephrol. What are the ingredients in OMONTYS? The 550 mg tablet is a pink-colored, oval, biconvex tablet with “rfx” debossed on one side. Xifaxan-treated patients responded to the first repeat treatment and did not have recurrence of signs and symptoms through the treatment-free follow-up period 10 weeks after first repeat treatment. Danko J, Huch R, Huch A. Epoetin alfa for the treatment of postpartum anemia. Lancet. Is it possible to prevent rheumatoid arthritis? Side Effects List Epoetin Alfa Solution side effects by likelihood and severity. This medication is given as an injection under the skin or into a vein as directed by your doctor, usually 1 to 3 times a week. Patients getting this medication before surgery may have a special dosing schedule. Hemodialysis patients should receive this medication by injection into a vein. Erypo in increasing and maintaining red blood cell counts. Discontinue epoetin alfa therapy following completion of a course of chemotherapy. 1 400 589 590 See Boxed Warning. Spivak JL, Hogans BB. The in vivo metabolism of recombinant human erythropoietin in the rat. Blood. order discount cymbalta
Platanias LC, Miller CB, Mick R et al. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. PFS with a Needle Guard. Has been used in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes designated an orphan drug by FDA for this use. 460 464 519 531 532 533 Relatively limited response rates reported; effects of the hormone on nonerythroid cell lines and potential risks of leukemic transformation require elucidation. Revlimid lenalidomide US prescribing information. You may need to stop taking OMONTYS. DaCosta NA, Hultin MB. Effective therapy of human immunodeficiency virus-associated anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin despite high endogenous erythropoietin. Am J Hematol.
AU: This drug should be used only if clearly needed. Abraham PA, Opsahl JA, Rachael KM et al. Renal function during erythropoietin therapy for anemia in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Am J Nephrol. Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen around the body. For these patients, the lowest dose that provides adequate control of symptoms should be used. Epogen arm 96% vs. 58%. Do not touch the release clips. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medication before checking with them first. The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Xifaxan. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting or causal connection to Xifaxan. Egrie JC, Browne J, Lai P et al. Characterization of recombinant monkey and human erythropoietin. Prog Clin Biol Res. DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINER. Talk with your healthcare provider about the kind of cancer you have. Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim have been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both i n vitro and in clinical infections as described in the section. cheapest dutasteride order now canada
Please refer to the for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations. Pregnancy Surveillance Program by calling 800-772-6436. Eschbach JW, Abdulhadi MH, Browne JK et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in anemic patients with end-stage renal disease: results of a phase III multicenter clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for Epoetin Alfa Hexal on 28 August 2007. Aranesp darbepoetin alfa US prescribing information. If you miss a dose, contact your doctor or right away to establish a new dosing schedule. buy nifedipine no script needed nifedipine
The Xifaxan and placebo treatment groups had similar baseline IBS symptom scores at the time of recurrence and randomization to the double-blind phase, but symptom scores were less severe than at study entry into the open-label phase. Halpérin DS, Wacker P, Lacourt G et al. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin in infants with the anemia of prematurity: a pilot study. J Pediatr. Cyclopropane and halothane anesthetics increase cardiac autonomic irritability and therefore seem to sensitize the myocardium to the action of intravenously administered epinephrine or norepinephrine. Hence, the use of Levophed during cyclopropane and halothane anesthesia is generally considered contraindicated because of the risk of producing ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. The same type of cardiac arrhythmias may result from the use of Levophed in patients with profound hypoxia or hypercarbia. Discontinue Xifaxan if diarrhea symptoms get worse or persist more than 24 to 48 hours and alternative antibiotic therapy should be considered. Importance of informing patients of possible adverse effects, including signs and symptoms of allergic drug reactions. Caro J, Brown S, Miller O et al. Erythropoietin levels in uremic nephric and anephric patients. J Lab Clin Med. Mircera may cause serious side effects. Xifaxan tablets contain rifaximin, a non-aminoglycoside semi-synthetic, nonsystemic antibiotic derived from rifamycin SV. Rifaximin is a structural analog of rifampin. Sun CH, Paul W, Ward HJ et al. Erythropoiesis and radioimmunoassayable recombinant human erythropoietin r-HuEPO in renal transplant Tx recipients. Gastrointestinal: Hepatitis including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia. Does epoetin alfa injection have side effects? Brown CD, Friedman EA. Stable renal function and benign course in azotemic diabetics treated with erythropoietin EPO for one year. Abstracts on recombinant erythropoietin from the American Society of Nephrology 21st annual meeting, San Antonio, TX, December 11-14, 1988. Kindler J, Eckardt KU, Ehmer B et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with various degrees of renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. irbesartan
Frenken LAM, Coppens PJW, Tiggeler RGWL et al. Intraperitoneal erythropoietin. Lancet. What are the possible side effects of OMONTYS? This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Epogen-treated patients and remained unchanged in patients receiving placebo. Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction. Who should not take Mircera? In an unrelated open-label, pharmacokinetic study of oral Xifaxan 200 mg taken every 8 hours for 3 days, 15 adult subjects were challenged with Shigella flexneri 2a, of whom 13 developed diarrhea or dysentery and were treated with Xifaxan. Although this open-label challenge trial was not adequate to assess the effectiveness of Xifaxan in the treatment of shigellosis, the following observations were noted: eight subjects received rescue treatment with ciprofloxacin either because of lack of response to Xifaxan treatment within 24 hours 2 or because they developed severe dysentery 5 or because of recurrence of Shigella flexneri in the stool 1; five of the 13 subjects received ciprofloxacin although they did not have evidence of severe disease or relapse. Kurtz A. Erythropoietin: structure, function, origin. Adv Nephrol. Not intended for patients with CKD who require acute correction of severe anemia; do not use as a substitute for emergency transfusion. Use lowest ESA dosage sufficient to reduce need for RBC transfusion in patients with CKD. Geissler K, Stockenhuber F, Kabrna E et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin and hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo. Blood. Sytkowski AJ, Donahue KA. Immunochemical studies of human erythropoietin using site-specific anti-peptide antibodies: identification of a functional domain. J Biol Chem. Stivelman JC. Resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy; a real clinical entity? SOC as compared with SOC alone. These effects include cleft palate, agnathia, jaw shortening, hemorrhage, eye partially open, small eyes, brachygnathia, incomplete ossification, and increased thoracolumbar vertebrae.
Kleinman KS, Schweitzer SU, Perdue ST et al. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin in the correction of anemia in predialysis patients and its effects on renal function: a double blind placebo controlled trial. Abstracts on recombinant erythropoietin from the American Society of Nephrology 21st annual meeting, San Antonio, TX, December 11-14, 1988. Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when a physician deems that Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim could offer some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent. Trimethoprim is metabolized in vitro to 11 different metabolites, of which, five are glutathione adducts and six are oxidative metabolites, including the major metabolites, 1- and 3-oxides and the 3- and 4-hydroxy derivatives. Kaplan SA, et al. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole in Man. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973; 128 Suppl: S547-S555. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medicine only for the indication prescribed. How is the cause of blood in the stool rectal bleeding diagnosed? Results showed that the pharmacokinetics of single doses of ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate were not altered by Xifaxan. Kanstrup IL, Ekblom B. Blood volume and hemoglobin concentration as determinants of maximal aerobic power. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Graf H, Watzinger U, Ludvik B et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin as adjuvant treatment for autologous blood donation. Your healthcare provider can give you a more complete list. Skin and Appendages: Extravasation necrosis at injection site. Marinella, Mark A. 1999. Trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia: An analysis of reported cases. Gerontol. how fast ranolazine
Van Wyck DB, Stivelman J, Kirlin L et al. Predicting iron status in patients receiving erythropoietin for dialysis- associated anemia. Abstracts on recombinant erythropoietin from the American Society of Nephrology 21st annual meeting, San Antonio, TX, December 11-14, 1988. United States in all indications other than dialysis and diagnostics. Food and Drug Administration. Communication about an ongoing safety review: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents ESAs Epoetin alfa marketed as Procrit, Epogen darbepoetin alfa marketed as Aranesp. Rockville, MD; Jan 3, 2008. From FDA website. Kromer G, Solf A, Ehmer B et al. Single dose pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin comparing intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration in IPD patients. Kidney Int. Margassery, S. and B. Bastani. 2002. Life threatening hyperkalemia and acidosis secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment. J. Nephrol. Bommer J, Samtleben W, Koch KM et al. Variations of recombinant human erythropoietin application in hemodialysis patients. Contrib Nephrol. Stivelman J, Van Wyck D, Kirlin L et al. Use of recombinant erythropoietin r-HuEPO with high efficiency dialysis HED does not worsen azotemia or shorten access survival. Zachee P, Staal GE, Rijksen G et al. Pyruvate kinase deficiency and delayed clinical response to recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. Lancet. What are the ingredients in Epogen? Bell K, Gillon J. Erythropoietin and perioperative blood donation. Lancet. Adjust dosage based on hemoglobin concentrations. 1 400 Consider rate of hemoglobin increase or decrease, ESA responsiveness, and hemoglobin variability when determining whether adjustments are needed; a single hemoglobin excursion may not require a dosage change. 1 400 Avoid frequent dosage changes. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim tablets, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim tablets, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Do not reuse your prefilled syringe or needle. ESA dose and schedule. Corbo DC, Suddith RL, Sharma B et al. Stability, potency, and preservative effectiveness of epoetin alfa after addition of a bacteriostatic diluent. Am J Hosp Pharm. zibra.info epivir
Paganini EP, Latham D, Abdulhadi M. Practical considerations of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. Mircera is a prescription medicine used to treat anemia. Anon. Erythropoietin for anemia. Med Lett Drugs Ther. It is not known whether Epogen is excreted in human milk. Depner TA, Rizwan S, James JA. Effectiveness of low dose erythropoietin: a possible advantage of high flux hemodialysis. ASAIO Trans. Renal diseases. In: Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH Jr, eds. Cecil textbook of medicine. What are rheumatoid arthritis causes and risk factors? North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East. Macdougall IC, Cavill I, Davies ME et al. Subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin in the treatment of renal anaemia in CAPD patients. Contrib Nephrol. What are types of rheumatoid arthritis medications? Your should be checked often. Ask your doctor if you should learn how to check your own pressure. If develops or worsens, follow your doctor's instructions about diet changes and starting or adjusting your medication. ESAs not indicated in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia when the anticipated outcome is cure of the underlying malignancy. celexa
india epoetin-alfa, cheap epoetin-alfa instrukcija, generic epoetin-alfa order mastercard uk, purchase cheap epoetin-alfa visa europe, purchase epoetin-alfa for me, epoetin-alfa and pharmacy, cheap epoetin-alfa prescription, order cheapest epoetin-alfa shop otc, canada epoetin-alfa for sale, order epoetin-alfa benefits, mail order generic epoetin-alfa australia, can i order epoetin-alfa online, epoetin-alfa apteka online, purchase epoetin-alfa over the counter, mail order now epoetin-alfa europe, epoetin-alfa buy now pharmacy australia, american epoetin-alfa store, best price on epoetin-alfa, cost epoetin-alfa tablets, price epoetin-alfa tablet, generic for epoetin-alfa cream, epoetin-alfa purchase online visa australia, generic epoetin-alfa effective, generic epoetin-alfa echeck, cheap epoetin-alfa online payment, generic epoetin-alfa without a doctor prescription, epoetin-alfa price generic, purchase epoetin-alfa do, epoetin-alfa shop on line, shop epoetin-alfa compendium, order epoetin-alfa brands, order epoetin-alfa no prescription needed, buy epoetin-alfa online europe, epoetin-alfa cost in us, fda epoetin-alfa, epoetin-alfa ointment price, buy epoetin-alfa from amazon, order epoetin-alfa tablet, order now epoetin-alfa payment europe, cost of epoetin-alfa at rite aid, epoetin-alfa tablets buy, epoetin-alfa shop romania, is canadian epoetin-alfa, epoetin-alfa cost per month, epoetin-alfa online kaufen deutschland, order epoetin-alfa pills online shop, online epoetin-alfa indicacao, cheapest epoetin-alfa buy online usa, epoetin-alfa order online shop australia, best place to buy epoetin-alfa online, buy cheap epoetin-alfa online shop, cheap epoetin-alfa hong kong, overnight shipping for epoetin-alfa, epoetin-alfa price at boots, order discount epoetin-alfa, cheapest epoetin-alfa order now canada, how fast epoetin-alfa, epoetin-alfa check, epoetin-alfa generic dosing, buy epoetin-alfa no script needed, epoetin-alfa online no script required
Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. flucort check
Goldwasser E, Eliason JF, Sikkema D. An assay for erythropoietin in vitro at the milliunit level. Endocrinology. Anderson CW, Ng KJ, Andresen B et al. Benzyl alcohol poisoning in a premature newborn infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Adverse effects similar to those experienced in adults. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Satoh K, Masuda T, Ikeda Y et al. Hemodynamic changes by recombinant erythropoietin therapy in hemodialyzed patients. Hypertension. McGonigle RJS, Husserl F, Wallin JD et al. Hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effects on erythropoiesis in renal failure. Kidney Int. What are the side effects of epoetin alfa? No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with Xifaxan. In clinical studies at doses higher than the recommended dose greater than 600 mg per day for TD, greater than 1100 mg per day for HE or greater than 1650 mg per day for IBS-D adverse reactions were similar in subjects who received doses higher than the recommended dose and placebo. In the case of overdosage, discontinue Xifaxan, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required.
AUC τ of rifaximin was about 10-, 14-, and 21-fold higher in those patients with mild Child-Pugh Class A moderate Child-Pugh Class B and severe Child-Pugh Class C hepatic impairment, respectively, compared to that in healthy volunteers. No dosage adjustment is recommended because rifaximin is presumably acting locally. ESAs to patients with cancer; participants must re-enroll every 3 years. 1 619 For additional information or to enroll in the ESA APPRISE Oncology program, contact 866-284-8089 or visit www. Each mL of this dilution contains 4 mcg of the base of Levophed. Give this solution by intravenous infusion. Insert a plastic intravenous catheter through a suitable bore needle well advanced centrally into the vein and securely fixed with adhesive tape, avoiding, if possible, a catheter tie-in technique as this promotes stasis. An IV drip chamber or other suitable metering device is essential to permit an accurate estimation of the rate of flow in drops per minute. After observing the response to an initial dose of 2 mL to 3 mL from 8 mcg to 12 mcg of base per minute, adjust the rate of flow to establish and maintain a low normal blood pressure usually 80 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg systolic sufficient to maintain the circulation to vital organs. In previously hypertensive patients, it is recommended that the blood pressure should be raised no higher than 40 mm Hg below the preexisting systolic pressure.